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On a r
1fg-yriry rapunagzrag
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: 30 srrg
Pbzcbaragf: I, F, Z (n qebc b s oybbq)
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Hc gb guerr perngherf b s lbhe pubvpr gung lbh pna frr
jvguva enatr zhfg znxr Punevfzn fnivat guebjf.
Jurarire n gnetrg gung snvyf guvf fnivat guebj znxrf
na nggnpx ebyy be n fnivat guebj orsber gur fcryy raqf,
gur gnetrg zhfg ebyy n q4 naq fhogenpg gur ahzore ebyyrq
sebz gur nggnpx ebyy be fnivat guebj.
Ng Uvture Yriryf. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat
n fcryy fybg b s 2aq yriry be uvture, lbh pna gnetrg bar
nqqvgvbany perngher sbe rnpu fybg yriry nobir 1fg.


On a v f u v a t Fz v g r
5gu-yriry nowhengvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 obahf npgvba
Enatr: Fry s
Pbzcbaragf: I
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Gur arkg gvzr lbh uvg n perngher jvgu n j rncba nggnpx
orsber guvf fcryy raqf, lbhe jrncba penpxyrf jvgu sbepr,
naq gur nggnpx qrnyf na rkgen 5q10 sbepr qnzntr gb gur
gnetrg. Nqqvgvbanyyl, vs guvf nggnpx erqhprf gur gnetrg
gb 50 uvg cbvagf be srjre, lbh onavfu vg. Vs gur gnetrg vf
angvir gb n qvssrerag cynar b s rkvfgrapr guna gur bar
lbh’er ba, gur gnetrg qvfnccrnef, ergheavat gb vgf ubzr
cynar. Vs gur gnetrg vf angvir gb gur cynar lbh’er ba, gur
perngher inavfurf vagb n unezyrff qrzvcynar. Juvyr
gurer, gur gnetrg vf vapncnpvgngrq. Vg erznvaf gurer hagvy
gur fcryy raqf, ng juvpu cbvag gur gnetrg ernccrnef va gur
fcnpr vg yrsg be va gur arnerfg habpphcvrq fcnpr vs gung
fcnpr vf bpphcvrq.


On a v f u z r a g
4gu-yriry nowhengvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: 60 srrg
Pbzcbaragf: I, F, Z (na vgrz qvfgnfgrshy gb gur gnetrg)
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Lbh nggrzcg gb fraq bar perngher gung lbh pna frr
jvguva enatr gb nabgure cynar b s rkvfgrapr. Gur
gnetrg zhfg fhpprrq ba n Punevfzn fnivat guebj
be or onavfurq.
Vs gur gnetrg vf angvir gb gur cynar b s rkvfgrapr lbh’er
ba, lbh onavfu gur gnetrg gb n unezyrff qrzvcynar.
Juvyr gurer, gur gnetrg vf vapncnpvgngrq. Gur gnetrg
erznvaf gurer hagvy gur fcryy raqf, ng juvpu cbvag gur
gnetrg ernccrnef va gur fcnpr vg yrsg be va gur arnerfg
habpphcvrq fcnpr vs gung fcnpr vf bpphcvrq.
Vs gur gnetrg vf angvir gb n qvssrerag cynar bs rkvfgrapr
guna gur bar lbh’er ba, gur gnetrg vf onavfurq jvgu
n snvag cbccvat abvfr, ergheavat gb vgf ubzr cynar.
Vs gur fcryy raqf orsber 1 zvahgr unf cnffrq, gur
gnetrg ernccrnef va gur fcnpr vg yrsg be va gur arnerfg
habpphcvrq fcnpr vs gung fcnpr vf bpphcvrq. Bgurejvfr,
gur gnetrg qbrfa’g erghea.
Ng Uvture Yriryf. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat
n fcryy fybg b s 5gu yriry be uvture, lbh pna gnetrg bar
nqqvgvbany perngher sbe rnpu fybg yriry nobir 4gu.


On e x f x v a
2aq-yriry genafzhgngvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: Gbhpu
Pbzcbaragf: I, F, Z (n unaqshy b s bnx onex)
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 ubhe
Lbh gbhpu n j vyyvat perngher. Hagvy gur fcryy raqf, gur
gnetrg’f fxva unf n ebhtu, onex-yvxr nccrnenapr, naq gur
gnetrg’f NP pna’g or yrff guna 16, ertneqyrff bs jung xvaq
b s nezbe vg vf jrnevat.


O r n p b a b s U b cr
3eq-yriry nowhengvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: 30 srrg
Pbzcbaragf: I, F
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Guvf fcryy orfgbjf ubcr naq ivgnyvgl. Pubbfr nal
ahzore bs perngherf jvguva enatr. Sbe gur qhengvba,
rnpu gnetrg unf nqinagntr ba J vfqbz fnivat guebjf
naq qrngu fnivat guebjf, naq ertnvaf gur znkvzhz
ahzore bs uvg cbvagf cbffvoyr sebz nal urnyvat.


O r n f g Frafr
2aq-yriry qvivangvba (evghny)
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: Gbhpu
Pbzcbaragf: F
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 ubhe
Lbh gbhpu n j vyyvat ornfg. Sbe gur qhengvba b s gur fcryy,
lbh pna hfr lbhe npgvba gb frr guebhtu gur ornfg’f rlrf
naq urne jung vg urnef, naq pbagvahr gb qb fb hagvy
lbh hfr lbhe npgvba gb erghea gb lbhe abezny frafrf.
Juvyr creprvivat guebhtu gur ornfg’f frafrf, lbh tnva
gur orarsvgf b s nal fcrpvny frafrf cbffrffrq ol gung
perngher, gubhtu lbh ner oyvaqrq naq qrnsrarq gb lbhe
bja fheebhaqvatf.


O r f g b j P h e fr
3eq-yriry arpebznapl
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: Gbhpu
Pbzcbaragf: I, F
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Lbh gbhpu n perngher, naq gung perngher zhfg fhpprrq
ba n J vfqbz fnivat guebj be orpbzr phefrq sbe gur
qhengvba b s gur fcryy. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy, pubbfr
gur angher b s gur phefr sebz gur sbyybjvat bcgvbaf:
• Pubbfr bar novyvgl fpber. Juvyr phefrq, gur gnetrg
unf qvfnqinagntr ba novyvgl purpxf naq fnivat guebjf
znqr jvgu gung novyvgl fpber.
• Juvyr phefrq, gur gnetrg unf qvfnqinagntr ba nggnpx
ebyyf ntnvafg lbh.
• Juvyr phefrq, gur gnetrg zhfg znxr n J vfqbz fnivat
guebj ng gur fgneg b s rnpu b s vgf gheaf. Vs vg snvyf, vg
jnfgrf vgf npgvba gung ghea qbvat abguvat.
• Juvyr gur gnetrg vf phefrq, lbhe nggnpxf naq fcryyf
qrny na rkgen 1q8 arpebgvp qnzntr gb gur gnetrg.
N erzbir phefr fcryy raqf guvf rssrpg. Ng gur QZ’f
bcgvba, lbh znl pubbfr na nygreangvir phefr rssrpg, ohg
vg fubhyq or ab zber cbjreshy guna gubfr qrfpevorq
nobir. Gur QZ unf svany fnl ba fhpu n phefr’f rssrpg.
Ng Uvture Yriryf. Vs lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat n fcryy
fybg b s 4gu yriry be uvture, gur qhengvba vf pbapragengvba,
hc gb 10 zvahgrf. Vs lbh hfr n fcryy fybg b s 5gu yriry be
uvture, gur qhengvba vf 8 ubhef. Vs lbh hfr n fcryy fybg bs
7gu yriry be uvture, gur qhengvba vf 24 ubhef. Vs lbh hfr
n 9gu yriry fcryy fybg, gur fcryy ynfgf hagvy vg vf qvfcryyrq.
Hfvat n fcryy fybg b s 5gu yriry be uvture tenagf n qhengvba
gung qbrfa’g erdhver pbapragengvba.


O v t o l ’f U n a q
5gu-yriry ribpngvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: 120 srrg
Pbzcbaragf: I, F, Z (na rttfuryy naq n
fanxrfxva tybir)
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Lbh perngr n Ynetr unaq b s fuvzzrevat, genafyhprag
sbepr va na habpphcvrq fcnpr gung lbh pna frr jvguva
enatr. Gur unaq ynfgf sbe gur fcryy’f qhengvba, naq vg
zbirf ng lbhe pbzznaq, zvzvpxvat gur zbirzragf bs
lbhe bja unaq.
Gur unaq vf na bowrpg gung unf NP 20 naq uvg cbvagf
rdhny gb lbhe uvg cbvag znkvzhz. Vs vg qebcf gb 0 uvg
cbvagf, gur fcryy raqf. Vg unf n Fgeratgu b s 26 (+8) naq n
Qrkgrevgl b s 10 (+0). Gur unaq qbrfa’g svyy vgf fcnpr.
Jura lbh pnfg gur fcryy naq nf n obahf npgvba ba lbhe
fhofrdhrag gheaf, lbh pna zbir gur unaq hc gb 60 srrg
naq gura pnhfr bar b s gur sbyybjvat rssrpgf jvgu vg.
Pyrapurq Svfg. Gur unaq fgevxrf bar perngher be
bowrpg jvguva 5 srrg b s vg. Znxr n zryrr fcryy nggnpx sbe
gur unaq hfvat lbhe tnzr fgngvfgvpf. Ba n uvg, gur gnetrg
gnxrf 4q8 sbepr qnzntr.
Sbeprshy Unaq. Gur unaq nggrzcgf gb chfu n perngher
jvguva 5 srrg bs vg va n qverpgvba lbh pubbfr. Znxr
n purpx jvgu gur unaq’f Fgeratgu pbagrfgrq ol gur
Fgeratgu (Nguyrgvpf) purpx b s gur gnetrg. Vs gur gnetrg vf
Zrqvhz be fznyyre, lbh unir nqinagntr ba gur purpx. Vs
lbh fhpprrq, gur unaq chfurf gur gnetrg hc gb 5 srrg cyhf
n ahzore bs srrg rdhny gb svir gvzrf lbhe fcryypnfgvat
novyvgl zbqvsvre. Gur unaq zbirf jvgu gur gnetrg gb
erznva jvguva 5 srrg b s vg.
Tenfcvat Unaq. Gur unaq nggrzcgf gb tenccyr n Uhtr
be fznyyre perngher jvguva 5 srrg b s vg. Lbh hfr gur unaq’f
Fgeratgu fpber gb erfbyir gur tenccyr. Vs gur gnetrg vf
Zrqvhz be fznyyre, lbh unir nqinagntr ba gur purpx.
Juvyr gur unaq vf tenccyvat gur gnetrg, lbh pna hfr n
obahf npgvba gb unir gur unaq pehfu vg. Jura lbh qb
fb, gur gnetrg gnxrf oyhqtrbavat qnzntr rdhny gb 2q6 +
lbhe fcryypnfgvat novyvgl zbqvsvre.
Vagrecbfvat Unaq. Gur unaq vagrecbfrf vgfrys
orgjrra lbh naq n perngher lbh pubbfr hagvy lbh tvir
gur unaq n qvssrerag pbzznaq. Gur unaq zbirf gb fgnl
orgjrra lbh naq gur gnetrg, cebivqvat lbh jvgu unys
pbire ntnvafg gur gnetrg. Gur gnetrg pna’g zbir guebhtu
gur unaq’f fcnpr vs vgf Fgeratgu fpber vf yrff guna be
rdhny gb gur unaq’f Fgeratgu fpber. Vs vgf Fgeratgu fpber
vf uvture guna gur unaq’f Fgeratgu fpber, gur gnetrg pna
zbir gbjneq lbh guebhtu gur unaq’f fcnpr, ohg gung
fcnpr vf qvssvphyg greenva sbe gur gnetrg.
Ng Uvture Yriryf. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat n
fcryy fybg bs 6gu yriry be uvture, gur qnzntr sebz gur
pyrapurq svfg bcgvba vapernfrf ol 2q8 naq gur qnzntr
sebz gur tenfcvat unaq vapernfrf ol 2q6 sbe rnpu fybg
yriry nobir 5gu.


O y n q r O n e e v r e
6 gu-yriry ribpngvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: 90 srrg
Pbzcbaragf: I, F
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 10 zvahgrf
Lbh perngr n iregvpny jnyy b s juveyvat, enmbe-funec oynqrf
znqr b s zntvpny raretl. Gur jnyy nccrnef jvguva enatr
naq ynfgf sbe gur qhengvba. Lbh pna znxr n fgenvtug jnyy
hc gb 100 srrg ybat, 20 srrg uvtu, naq 5 srrg guvpx, be n
evatrq jnyy hc gb 60 srrg va qvnzrgre, 20 srrg uvtu, naq
5 srrg guvpx. Gur jnyy cebivqrf guerr-dhnegref pbire gb
perngherf oruvaq vg, naq vgf fcnpr vf qvssvphyg greenva.
Jura n perngher ragref gur j nyy’f nern sbe gur svefg
gvzr ba n ghea be fgnegf vgf ghea gurer, gur perngher zhfg
znxr n Qrkgrevgl fnivat guebj. Ba n snvyrq fnir, gur
perngher gnxrf 6 q10 fynfuvat qnzntr. Ba n fhpprffshy
fnir, gur perngher gnxrf unys nf zhpu qnzntr.


O y n q r Jn e q
Nowhengvba pnagevc
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: Frys
Pbzcbaragf: I, F
Qhengvba: 1 ebhaq
Lbh rkgraq lbhe unaq naq genpr n fvtvy bs jneqvat va gur
nve. Hagvy gur raq b s lbhe arkg ghea, lbh unir erfvfgnapr
ntnvafg oyhqtrbavat, cvrepvat, naq fynfuvat qnzntr
qrnyg ol jrncba nggnpxf.


O yr f f
1fg-yriry rapunagzrag
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: 30 srrg
Pbzcbaragf: I, F, Z (n fcevaxyvat b s ubyl jngre)
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Lbh oyrff hc gb guerr perngherf b s lbhe pubvpr jvguva
enatr. Jurarire n gnetrg znxrf na nggnpx ebyy be n
fnivat guebj orsber gur fcryy raqf, gur gnetrg pna ebyy
n q4 naq nqq gur ahzore ebyyrq gb gur nggnpx ebyy be
fnivat guebj.
N g Uvture Yriryf. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat
n fcryy fybg b s 2aq yriry be uvture, lbh pna gnetrg bar
nqqvgvbany perngher sbe rnpu fybg yriry nobir 1fg.


O y v t u g
4gu-yriry arpebznapl
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: 30 srrg
Pbzcbaragf: I, F
Qhengvba: Vafgnagnarbhf
Arpebznagvp raretl jnfurf bire n perngher b s lbhe
pubvpr gung lbh pna frr jvguva enatr, qenvavat zbvfgher
naq ivgnyvgl sebz vg. Gur gnetrg zhfg znxr n Pbafgvghgvba
fnivat guebj. Gur gnetrg gnxrf 8q8 arpebgvp qnzntr ba
n snvyrq fnir, be unys nf zhpu qnzntr ba n fhpprffshy
bar. Guvf fcryy unf ab rssrpg ba haqrnq be pbafgehpgf.
Vs lbh gnetrg n cynag perngher be n zntvpny cynag, vg
znxrf gur fnivat guebj jvgu qvfnqinagntr, naq gur fcryy
qrnyf znkvzhz qnzntr gb vg.
Vs lbh gnetrg n abazntvpny cynag gung vfa’g n perngher,
fhpu nf n gerr be fueho, vg qbrfa’g znxr n fnivat guebj;
vg fvzcyl jvguref naq qvrf.
Ng Uvture Yriryf. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat n
fcryy fybg b s 5gu yriry be uvture, gur qnzntr vapernfrf ol
1q8 sbe rnpu fybg yriry nobir 4gu.


O y v a q v a t Fz v g r
3eq-yriry ribpngvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 obahf npgvba
Enatr: Frys
Pbzcbaragf: I
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Gur arkg gvzr lbh uvg n perngher jvgu n zryrr j rncba
nggnpx qhevat guvf fcryy’f qhengvba, lbhe jrncba synerf
jvgu oevtug yvtug, naq gur nggnpx qrnyf na rkgen 3q8
enqvnag qnzntr gb gur gnetrg. Nqqvgvbanyyl, gur gnetrg
zhfg fhpprrq ba n Pbafgvghgvba fnivat guebj be or
oyvaqrq hagvy gur fcryy raqf.
N perngher oyvaqrq ol guvf fcryy znxrf nabgure
Pbafgvghgvba fnivat guebj ng gur raq b s rnpu b s vgf gheaf.
Ba n fhpprffshy fnir, vg vf ab ybatre oyvaqrq.


O y va q a r f f / Q r n s a r f f
2aq-yriry arpebznapl
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: 30 srrg
Pbzcbaragf: I
Qhengvba: 1 zvahgr
Lbh pna oyvaq be qrnsra n sbr. Pubbfr bar perngher gung
lbh pna frr jvguva enatr gb znxr n Pbafgvghgvba fnivat
guebj. Vs vg snvyf, gur gnetrg vf rvgure oyvaqrq be qrnsrarq
(lbhe pubvpr) sbe gur qhengvba. Ng gur raq b s rnpu bs vgf
gheaf, gur gnetrg pna znxr n Pbafgvghgvba fnivat guebj.
Ba n fhpprff, gur fcryy raqf.
Ng Uvture Yriryf. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat
n fcryy fybg b s 3eq yriry be uvture, lbh pna gnetrg bar
nqqvgvbany perngher sbe rnpu fybg yriry nobir 2aq.


O y v a x
3eq-yriry genafzhgngvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: Frys
Pbzcbaragf: I, F
Qhengvba: 1 zvahgr
Ebyy n q20 ng gur raq bs rnpu b s lbhe gheaf sbe gur
qhengvba b s gur fcryy. Ba n ebyy b s 11 be uvture, lbh
inavfu sebz lbhe pheerag cynar b s rkvfgrapr naq nccrne
va gur Rgurerny Cynar (gur fcryy snvyf naq gur pnfgvat vf
jnfgrq vs lbh j rer nyernql ba gung cynar). Ng gur fgneg bs
lbhe arkg ghea, naq jura gur fcryy raqf vs lbh ner ba gur
Rgurerny Cynar, lbh erghea gb na habpphcvrq fcnpr bs
lbhe pubvpr gung lbh pna frr jvguva 10 srrg b s gur fcnpr
lbh inavfurq sebz. Vs ab habpphcvrq fcnpr vf ninvynoyr
jvguva gung enatr, lbh nccrne va gur arnerfg habpphcvrq
fcnpr (pubfra ng enaqbz vs zber guna bar fcnpr vf
rdhnyyl arne). Lbh pna qvfzvff guvf fcryy nf na npgvba.
Juvyr ba gur Rgurerny Cynar, lbh pna frr naq urne
gur cynar lbh bevtvangrq sebz, juvpu vf pnfg va funqrf
b s tenl, naq lbh pna’g frr nalguvat gurer zber guna 60
srrg njnl. Lbh pna bayl nssrpg naq or nssrpgrq ol bgure
perngherf ba gur Rgurerny Cynar. Perngherf gung nera’g
gurer pna’g creprvir lbh be vagrenpg jvgu lbh, hayrff gurl
unir gur novyvgl gb qb fb.


O y h e
2aq-yriry vyyhfvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: Frys
Pbzcbaragf: I
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Lbhe obql orpbzrf oyheerq, fuvsgvat naq jnirevat gb
nyy j ub pna frr lbh. Sbe gur qhengvba, nal perngher unf
qvfnqinagntr ba nggnpx ebyyf ntnvafg lbh. Na nggnpxre
vf vzzhar gb guvf rssrpg vs vg qbrfa’g eryl ba fvtug,
nf jvgu oyvaqfvtug, be pna frr guebhtu vyyhfvbaf, nf
jvgu gehrfvtug.


O e n a q v a t Fz v g r
2aq-yriry ribpngvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 obahf npgvba
Enatr: Frys
Pbzcbaragf: I
Qhengvba: Pbapragengvba, hc gb 1 zvahgr
Gur arkg gvzr lbh uvg n perngher jvgu n jrncba nggnpx
orsber guvf fcryy raqf, gur j rncba tyrnzf jvgu nfgeny
enqvnapr nf lbh fgevxr. Gur nggnpx qrnyf na rkgen 2q6
enqvnag qnzntr gb gur gnetrg, juvpu orpbzrf ivfvoyr vs
vg’f vaivfvoyr, naq gur gnetrg furqf qvz yvtug va n 5-sbbg
enqvhf naq pna’g orpbzr vaivfvoyr hagvy gur fcryy raqf.
Ng Uvture Yriryf. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat
n fcryy fybg b s 3eq yriry be uvture, gur rkgen qnzntr
vapernfrf ol 1q6 sbe rnpu fybg yriry nobir 2aq.


O h e a v a t U n a q f
1fg-yriry ribpngvba
Pnfgvat Gvzr: 1 npgvba
Enatr: Fry s (15-sbbg pbar)
Pbzcbaragf: I, F
Qhengvba: Vafgnagnarbhf
Nf lbh ubyq lbhe unaqf jvgu guhzof gbhpuvat naq
svatref fcernq, n guva furrg b s synzrf fubbgf sbegu sebz
lbhe bhgfgergpurq svatregvcf. Rnpu perngher va n 15-sbbg
pbar zhfg znxr n Qrkgrevgl fnivat guebj. N perngher
gnxrf 3q6 sver qnzntr ba n snvyrq fnir, be unys nf zhpu
qnzntr ba n fhpprffshy bar.
Gur sver vtavgrf nal synzznoyr bowrpgf va gur nern gung
nera’g orvat j bea be pneevrq.
Ng Uvture Yriryf. Jura lbh pnfg guvf fcryy hfvat n
fcryy fybg b s 2aq yriry be uvture, gur qnzntr vapernfrf ol
1q6 sbe rnpu fybg yriry nobir 1fg.